RESPIROMETRY EMERGES AS AN
OPERATION TOOL IN THE

WASTEWATER TREATMENT FIELD

The Birth of an Idea
The saying, "Necessity is the mother of invention." certainly applied to the
invention of the Arthur Respirometer. The need to show wastewater
treatment plant operators what is actually happening inside the activated sludge
process is what stimulated Bob Arthur to invent and patent (in 1962) the Arthur
Large Volume Respirometer. He, in fact, needed to know what was happening
within the process biologically so he could do a better job of training plant
operators, and getting them to appreciate that they were working with a living,
breathing system, not just a mass of solids. He felt that if he could get bioactivity
information in a timely manner, this would be a real breakthrough, resulting in
better process control.

Arthur had to be involved in training operators, for he was part of the operation
service division of a major wastewater treatment equipment manufacturer. It was
his job to start up plants nationwide and train the operators in all aspects of
equipment operation and maintenance. He also had to teach them bench tests to
obtain process control information. He usually started by showing an operator
how to perform a settling test with a one-liter graduated cylinder. If he was
lucky, he might find that the lab (quite limited in those days) included a hand
operated centrifuge (there were no drying ovens and scales) so he could tell the
operator about the importance of solids concentration. He might then even
introduce the operator to a control strategy - the Sludge Volume Index (SVI).

Physical vs. Biological Tests
Performing these physical tests of settling and solids on the mixed liquor just did
not make sense to Arthur. Activated sludge is a living, breathing process. "How,"
he wondered, "is it possible to learn what is happening in a biological process
by performing physical tests?" Arthur certainly recognized that physical tests
were necessary to determine what was happening in the physical part of the
process, i.e.settling, but it bothered him that no tests were performed to see what
was happening in the biological part, which is usually 50% or more of the
treatment process.

When Arthur started his own engineering firm (Arthur Technology Inc.) to design
wastewater treatment plants, he was again involved in operator training, and
again was frustrated by the lack of bioactivity information when operating a
biological wastewater treatment plant. He decided to do something about this.
After several years of work to design an instrument especially for use with
activated sludge and by operators, the Arthur Respirometer was introduced in a
paper given at the Purdue Industrial Waste Conference in 1964.

Educating the Public in Respirometry
Shortly after introducing the instrument, Arthur realized that few people
understood how to use a respirometer, or realized the importance of the
information it could provide, so he began to develop new respirometer-based
operation strategies. This technology was called "respirometry". Aware
that the only way to sell a new technology was to demonstrate it, Arthur loaded
a van with a respirometer, slide show and other props and toured the USA and
Canada for several weeks every year, demonstrating his respirometer and his
technology to rooms full of operators, technicians and consultants. The
strategies, which all utilized timely, bioactivity information obtained from the
respirometer, made a great deal of sense to his audiences. The important thing
they learned was that they could use this tool to actually determine what was
going on inside the treatment process from start to finish, and that they could
detect and avoid small treatment problems before they became major problems.
In fact, the most common question from the audience was, "Why hasn't anyone
done this before?"
The rest is history, as they say. Today, hundreds of plant
operators worldwide are using Arthur's operation strategies.

Respirometry Plus, LLC is currently looking for distributors
in
Asian and Latin American countries. A good knowledge of
the
activated sludge wastewater treatment process is required.





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